The beginnings of modernism in the garden and landscape architecture and its development in Slovakia

Katarína Kristiánová

SUMMARY

Modernism appeared in the garden and landscape architecture as a reflection of modernist trends in art and architecture. In early 1900s and especially in the period in between the two World Wars, the garden design gradually changed under the influence of other artistic disciplines. However, this period does not only mark the start of Modernism in garden design; this was also the period when a new profession—that of a landscape architect—gradually came to life, being established between 1890-1940 both under the influence of Modernism and as a response to significant social and economic changes. Hence, landscape architects establishing their position vis-à-vis artists, architects or gardeners as a profession of its own, started to formulate their theories, desires and efforts with a view to influence the urban growth, to have their say in the land-use planning and to foster the landscape protection, and they attempted to define the meaning of Modernism in the garden and landscape architecture and design.

Modernism in the landscape architecture and design expanded in the 1930s in many a country and in numerous works of various authors. Likewise, the garden and landscape architecture concepts in Slovakia from the interwar modernism period are shown in works of art having various scales and taking varied typological design forms, ranging from gardens of detached houses and villas, through exterior landscaping designs for schools, sanatoria, or administrative and commercial buildings etc., up to the urban concept of garden cities and public urban spaces.

Keywords: green infrastructure, landscape architecture, modernism, gardens, parks