Education concepts in landscape architecture
Landscape architecture requires a broad knowledge in the field of natural and biological sciences, in the field of art, architectural and urban planning disciplines. The diversified nature of the profession is reflected in the diversity of study programmes. The study programmes of landscape architecture are, in general, incorporated within the structure of the universities and colleges in various way – teaching of landscape architecture is an integrated part of technical universities, faculties of architecture, agricultural and forestry universities, and a form of separate faculties of landscape architecture also exists. The oldest and the most influential academic program of landscape architecture, founded in 1900 at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, considers landscape architecture as a profession, an academic discipline, and as a medium of design that engages urbanism, environmentalism, and culture.
The paper addresses specifications of the study programme of Landscape and Garden Architecture at the Faculty of Architecture, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, in the context of international trends of the profession development, in the context of former Czechoslovak and current Slovak traditions, as well as contemporary trends in development of university education in the field of landscape architecture.
The advantage and specific feature of the study programme of Landscape and Garden Architecture in the environment of Slovak technical education at the Faculty of Architecture of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava is a strong share of architectural, urban planning and technical disciplines, which develop creative skills of architectural design. The current education in the field of landscape architecture at the Faculty of Architecture of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava builds on the long tradition of teaching architecture and urban planning, and on the work of personalities that shaped the development of landscape architecture education and originated the establishment of the today Institute of Landscape and Garden Architecture, and at the same time, it is also constantly adjusted to the dynamically evolving new needs of the profession and new concepts of teaching in their diversity and application of multidisciplinary approaches.
The issue of tree allées and tree-rows in the urban environment
The paper focuses attention to the issues of tree allées and tree-rows in the urban environment. Tree allées and tree-rows in streets are significant natural features of urban structures, linking the different areas of vegetation into a coherent system of urban green space. They belong to the most problematic and the most demanding objects concerning the greenery implementation and maintenance.
Tree-rows and tree allées in an urban environment as elements of street roads are usually part of road-side greenery. The road-side greenery has a specific status, specific functions, and also specific claims for setting-up and maintenance. It has a vital importance in the elimination of negative impacts of transport on the environment and at the same time it is strongly affected by transport. The quality of road-side greenery is usually much worse than the quality of park or housing estate greenery. The proposed planting of trees in street areas faces a number of barriers and restrictions, e.g. in terms of traffic safety (the distance of trees from kerbs), in terms of engineering networks (protection zones), in terms of heritage preservation (planting trees in protected areas of historic towns). The spatial aspect is also important – the possibility to join multiple functions, such as engineering networks, parking lots, sidewalks for pedestrians, cycling paths and planting of trees in street corridors. It means that the tree allées and tree-rows in streets belong to the most important but also the most endangered groups of green spaces in the urban environment. They suffer from drought, dust, air pollutants, salination, mechanical damage, and as a result of weakened vitality also diseases and pests.
The main activities in the care of green areas in the urban environment are keeping record of the quantity and condition of the existing greenery, planting and creation of new green areas, maintenance and protection of existing green areas. These activities are interrelated. Their goal is to keep the greenery as a whole in vital condition in order to enable it to perform its biological, social and other specific functions. Tree-rows and tree allées represent the significant space creating and nature-related elements, which facilitate improvement of the quality of public spaces in urban structures.
City park, current aspects of design
The content of the article focuses on the issue of creation of an urban park as part of the public space of a city. Currently, several professions like architects, urban planners, designers and sociologists take discussion on public areas of the city. They search for solutions to increase the quality of these areas.
In the system of public spaces, parks play an important role, they have a significant potential to compensate many social and environmental problems, which cities have to face currently. Parks are involved in creating the characteristic image of the city, its positive effect on the quality of urban life. One of the reasons why many urban parks are in unsatisfactory condition is the different pace of life and the needs of people who visit the parks. The program for parks, which was composed under the past terms of the past period, requires new solutions.
The article characterizes the park as a public space of the city. Types of parks are defined in terms of their characteristic appearance. The parks should be understood in different way in relation to their importance. This is associated with their administration, maintenance and development. The hierarchy of parks is related to their attendance, areal size, their location and their specific character. Sufficient size, quality, and availability are some of the major indicators of the park’s attractiveness. The assessment of availability of parks will help us to detect their shortage in the area of the city and can lead to the need for amendments.
The search for new styles and strategies for current park design in the urban environment requires solutions addressing sustainability of further development of settlements. The current creation of parks has several aspects: creation of space, social aspects, environmental and economic aspects. The current strategy of park design, in terms of the sustainability, is making parks ecological, the application of domestic species of vegetation, vegetation elements that are by their character close to nature, bio-retention of rainwater, use of local elements and recyclable materials.
In terms of public spaces, parks need to be multifunctional, ecological and cultural, open for their users and also open to the city. A perfect park should cover the scale of recreational interests of the public as much as possible, but should also provide areas where the users decide what the function of the space will be or what they want to use it for.
The history of parks indicates that it is relatively easy to build the parks but their long-term maintenance tends to be a problem. Public parks are under the management of town or urban authorities, which allocate financial resources to cover only the basic maintenance. Innovations and new strategies require further sources. Many of the parks in foreign countries have already created their own sources of income through foundations, activities, partnerships with private sector or with communities, using technology that will help reduce the cost of their operation.
Recovery of the historic greenery in Slovakia: Alfonz Torma and his contribution to restoration of the historical greenery objects in the second half of the 20th century
Historical greenery – what do we understand under this term? Historical development of garden architecture in Slovakia is generally accepted until the beginning of the Second World War. The attitude to the historical period between the communist takeover in 1948 and its end in 1989 is embarrassing. It looks like if we were reluctant to accept the fact that this period of our society is also part of our history as are all other societal aspects. In the garden and landscape architecture, as well as in architecture, culture and art, were created works which should be included in our national cultural heritage.
The last quarter of the 20th century is, within gardening and landscaping, characterized by large renewal projects of objects of historical greenery. To assess the value of the historical heritage, their contribution to society and the profession, it is necessary to know and understand the conditions in all spheres of social life, when these renewals were realized. The development of garden art is closely linked to the development of architecture, so it is necessary to monitor it, too. For understanding of the contemporary approach to protection and restoration of monuments, it is important to recognize the context of social situation in post-war socialist Czechoslovakia.
Furthermore, we must not forget that the personality of the creator is one of the most important factors in the process of creation, his creative beliefs and principles that he follows in his work. In the mentioned period, the work of garden and landscape architect Alfonz Torma strongly resonated. It was not only extensive in number of projects and realizations, but also in the broad scope within the profession. He as an author conceptually led several major renewal and restoration projects of historical green areas in Slovakia. In ZARES, the projection centre of Bratislava municipal enterprise, headed by Torma for 30 years, many high-class landscape architects were concentrated, implementing their projects in the former Czechoslovakia.
On the example of important historical greenery objects in Bratislava, such as Sad Janka Kráľa in Petržalka and Medická záhrada in the Old Town, it is possible to outline a way of approach to restoration of historic greenery in Slovakia in the mentioned period of the second half of the 20th century and to name their major contribution to the development of the garden and landscape architecture.
The last quarter of the 20th century is, in the garden art and creation, characterized by large historical green renewal projects. Factors that are analysed for the final appearance of the restored objects of garden architecture can be summarized as follows:
– The state of the renovated object.
– The context of the period of the object’s origin.
– The context of the period when the renewal of object is done – political, social, cultural, economic situation.
– The contemporary situation and the views of landscape design.
– The development of contemporary architecture and art.
– The contemporary view on monument restoration.
– The personality of the architect / landscape designer.
In the view of the continued existence of parks and gardens, their further use, the fact of who operates the object, as well as the financial and material resources ensuring continuous professional care and maintenance in an adequate range appear to be more important.
New trends in landscape architecture: An article on architectural treatment of an area located on Odbojárov and Kalinčiakova streets, in the locality of Tehelné pole in Bratislava
Tamara Reháčková, Ivan Stankoci, Miriam Heinrichová
The main objective of the article is to closer disclose the process of designing the solution for the new Park Site on the place of the former cycling stadium.
The first part deals with the broader relationships. The history of the former stadium area is mentioned, the functional use of the surrounding areas, connection and availability are analyzed. The whole territory and the complex itself are well accessible by public transportation, several lines of buses, trams and trolleybuses. Bicycle and pedestrian movement in the area are of great potential. From the point of view of pedestrians, the state of pavements and the presence of barriers appear to be a problem.
The second part deals with the philosophical and conceptual solution of the complex. The overall character of the space and its solution is defined as a public space, which contains several aspects in itself (social, environmental and economic). The design philosophy is based on respect and development of all of them. A view is presented that all the aspects must be in balance with each other to form an attractive, variable, livable, sustainable and respectful space.
The third part addresses programme and functional use of the area. The area of the Park Site is proposed to accept and exploit the potential of an attractive location, linking the environment, and positively affecting the lives of citizens. Flexibility for use is the motto for the newly revitalized area.
Compositions and spatial relations are dealt with in the third chapter. The composition proposal is based on the “stage and auditorium.” The focal point of the whole area is styled “Tower of bicycles”, as a reminder of past complex. An important composition tools are light and shadow. Substitution bright open space with dark shaded area, creates the necessary contrast and adds dynamism to the overall composition.
The fourth chapter deals with the concept in terms of its environmental and ecological aspects. It highlights environmental responsibility and the proposed design is perceived as a contribution to improve the living conditions in the city. The proposed environmental access to the solution does not require demanding modifications of the terrain or material manipulations. It wants to cooperate with the nature not go against it.
The concept from the perspective of social and economic development of the site is mentioned in the fifth part of the article. Revitalization of the former cycling stadium will provide the multifunction park with many sport activities. It will provide sports and recreational activities to a wide range of those interested from closer or further localities. The park will add to the attractiveness of the whole surrounding area which currently is quite neglected.
UrbANNAtur: Teaching through research, practice, and international cooperation
Eva Putrová, Katarína Gécová, Katarína Kristiánová
Mutual relation among teaching, research and practice bring the benefits that are just as useful for students as for teachers. Benefits of linking teaching, research and practice are generally recognized and supported by education policies and programmes at the national and international levels. The international project of urbANNAtur – the development of recreational activities in the natural conservation areas, meant a significant benefit for the innovation by synergic junction of teaching, research, and practice on an international level in the field of landscape architecture at the Faculty of Architecture of Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava and it meant a significant contribution to the development of research in the field of landscape architecture – for the development of the research issues of recreational activities in the natural conservation areas. The solution of the project brought interesting results in the form of student works. Views of young people and their creativity in the form of various solutions of landscape architectural concepts of suburban areas have created a basis for solutions in practice and have verified the urbANNAtur strategy for the development of recreational activities in the natural conservation areas.
The project of urbANNAtur, which started as a collaboration of the Department of the City Council of Vienna 49 and Urban Forests in Bratislava, answers the questions of the relationship between anthropogenic factors and nature. The research compiled by the team of the Institute of Landscape and Garden Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava in cooperation with the professional staff of the project partners belonged to the major components of the project. The main idea of the project urbANNAtur was to explore the design possibilities of attractive recreational areas in the growing urban areas and, at the same time, to help to increase the protection of significant natural areas in the vicinity of towns. The territory of Vienna and Bratislava were selected as case studies. In Vienna, the Esslinger Furt site bordering the area of Lobau was chosen, and in Bratislava, the sites of former ammunition storage area in the forest near Krasňany, next was the old free time area Pri Horárni, and at the Kamzík area it was the central recreational part.
On the basis of the process of urbANNAtur – teaching through research, practice, and international cooperation, various strategic principles have been derived, which can be used individually or collectively, not only for the solved sites, but also in other similar situations, where there is a need to address aspects of the mutual compatibility of the conservation of nature and recreation functions of peri-urban areas. The set of arguments helps professionals, decision makers and other stakeholders in their activities aimed at the preservation of natural areas and creation of new recreational areas within the meaning of the principle that protected areas as well as outlying territories are hiding power and great potential, while buffer zones can help preserve their values.
Waterfront strategy in Bratislava – Petržalka
Viera Joklová, Juraj Furdík
Waterfront development is driven by the current global effects of lifestyle changes, increased requirements on urban and living standards, redevelopment of former industrial sites and brownfields, often situated in contact with water elements in the cities. The aim of the development strategies is the flexible, humane, environmentally and socially responsible approach to the existing natural or brownfield landscapes of waterfront areas. Such an approach supports an active integration of natural and landscaped elements in urban structures, while preserving their biological value and it also forms new, aesthetic and pleasant urban spaces. The paper deals with the waterfront strategies in Bratislava large housing district Petržalka, including the research of its historical context and development perspectives. It is mapping the different approaches, documenting the interdisciplinary research based on international educational cooperation and addressing the students´ examples in a critical way. The regeneration strategy aims to widen the access for broader participation and international cooperation ensuring thus greater objectification of the final solution for the benefit and satisfaction of both professionals and the general public; and especially the future users. The paper is the result of authors´ research of historical and current landscape and urban contexts, particularly of the right-bank area of Petržalka in Bratislava. The research referring to different development periods unveils the key natural and civilization changes and expert designs with a significant impact on the development of the right-bank area of the Danube and the related Danube arms in Petržalka.