English summary

What kind of a scientific problem a city is?
By Kristína Staněková

This paper briefly summarizes the progress of scientific thinking in the course of 20th century focusing on the emergency of system theory and its implications for urban design research. This is done in the quest for the verified method and conceptual framework applicable to use when dealing with a complex and elusive problem such as a city is. It was observed, that when dealing with questions concerning a city we rarely start from a point in which we define what kind of a scientific problem a city poses. Not doing so we mostly put forward definitions that don’t indicate scientific method appropriate to use when exploring this phenomenon. It exposes us to a danger that we might unconsciously use methods which can’t lead us to correct answers. The nature of a problem, not our preference for certain way of handling it, should guide our decision. There are three basic types of scientific problems: problems of simplicity, problems of disorganized complexity and problems of organized complexity. They can’t be approached in the same way. Problems of simplicity are problems of two variables for which the methods that rely on linear causality can be used. Problems of disorganized complexity are problems of many variables behaving in “haphazard” way, and the questions they pose, can be answered by the techniques of the probability theory and statistics. Problems of organized complexity involve several variables whose behavior is interconnected, all are varying simultaneously but nevertheless they create an organized whole. Before the emergence of system theory in the first half of the 20th century, science was not able to successfully deal with these kinds of problems. City, too, happens to be a problem of organized complexity and therefore it is
wise to approach it as such.

Conquering a city: Notes on the interpretation of architecture and urbanism of totalitarian and authoritarian regimes
By Marián Potočár

Based on our preliminary research on the topic, this article presents some possibilities of particular theoretical approaches to the problem of architecture and urbanism in totalitarian and authoritarian regimes. First section briefly introduces the view on development of architecture and urbanism as a process with complex inner dynamics influenced by universal ideas of modernist development. Based on Michel’s Foucault’s concept of Biopower, the link between rationalization and development of knowledge in modern states is suggested as well as a tendency towards spatial distribution of social and power relationships. The text then deals with the description of Lefebvre’s idea of space as a social product. In his theory, architectural (spatial) practices become socio-spatial phenomena dialectically determining social relations. Second section clarifies a few terms used in urban landscaping which are influenced by social conflict. The urbicide concept is the key one here, i.e. planned assault that targets constructed environment. Destruction of given landscape is imposed by the side of power on a powerless group and is followed by its reshaping in favour of the former. Urbicide can be distinguished from genocide as a systematic attempt for destruction of a possible alien existence rather than an alien existence itself. The third section thus suggests a hypothesis that the processes of urbanization and construction facilitated by totalitarian and authoritarian regimes in Slovakia bore distinctive features of urbicide.

Incorporation of a complex of structures into the city structure: Current research results
By Jaromír Hainc

In general, residential buildings and residential sector represent more than half of the work of an architect. Sufficient housing for people and the need for quality of living is a key issue in many countries, in the Czech Republic as well. The long duration of street layout has influence on the sustainability of cities. In this article, a specific segment – housing complexes are studied in terms of spatial integration and accessibility. The Space Syntax method is used to analyze 15 selected housing complexes in Prague. The conclusions are indicated with preliminary interpretation of the analyses results. This study is part of the theme of Recently Built-up Areas and Their Integration into the Pattern of a City. This article tries to briefly inform and show the methods of research used for better understanding of spatial relations and integration of recently built up complexes. One of the key targets is to more deeply analyze the housing estates – blocks of flats of collective housing built in the second half of 20th century.

Discovering architectural records as a process
By Valéria Gašparová

The ways of recording temporal and spatial changes are linked to the discovering and deductive explanation, scrutinizing ambiguities of urban situations with respect to different degrees of organization and specific character of selected urban areas. Recent design methodologies, influenced by possibilities of new technologies, are directed at research of digital processes, replacing thus the previous concentration on form representation. What do new time-space mapping techniques represent and how is it possible to transcript temporal data into a visual geometrical record or into an abstract form of script? Consequently, in which type are these records processed, what is the character of programming languages and how are they influencing the design process? A key argument is that a record is conceived as an indicator, an initiatory object and the starting point for design process. The thesis focuses on research of new visual appearance and techniques of generating records stressing the dynamic aspects of mapping. Through structural analysis, the factors which have meaningful influence on the manner of record’s formation are identified. Evolution of architectural recording and mapping is scrutinized from the viewpoint of geometrical manipulations. Denotation of record lies in identification of spatial and temporal information and in discovering its visual-analytical strategies. The complexity of architectural records is examined through oppositions: real time contra computational time, visual appearance contra dematerialization, geometry contra scripts. A significant phenomenon surveyed is that of finding a relation between authors’s selected records, their manipulation and processing through computational procedures. The results of the submitted thesis can be applied in further conceptualization of methodological design research.

The role of landscape architecture: Profession in studying and planning processes in Czech Republic
By Martina Sarvašová

This research shall focus on identifying the process of studying landscape architecture (curriculum, study abroad and exchange opportunities), transition to practice (internships), everyday practice (architectural offices), and the process of registration (authorization) and chamber memberships (rights and obligations). The goal is to remove mental boundaries between planning and design professions, between countries, between the public and professionals, inhabitants and their habitats; thereby giving a professional freedom to collaboration and promoting the arts in the public place. In the Czech Republic we often refer to landscape as countryside, everything what is beyond the boundaries of cities and called “greenery”. Within the cities, the term landscape is generally re-mastered and reduced into “gardens and parks”. Landscape perception by inhabitants is one of the basic principles which define the role of landscape architects. If we don’t recognize urban landscape as a domain of landscape architecture, we cannot erase the mental boundaries of other professionals and we cannot improve the profession and public awareness, and in the Czech environment and conditions we cannot find support. The perception of landscape environment is directly connected with the perception of the profession itself, because it is landscape architecture, which makes place for the use of wide scope of knowledge and doesn’t treat it as individual or isolated object. The source document for defining and comparing educational systems is a document created and approved by IFLA in 2008 called “GUIDANCE DOCUMENT for RECOGNITION or ACCREDITATION Professional Education Programs in Landscape Architecture”.

Research by design in renovation of industrial heritage
By Vladimír Hain

Research of the industrial heritage should be based on an interdisciplinary concept that comprises technical, social, economic and cultural aspects. Its methods are the methods of historical, material, documentation, technical but especially architectural research. The role of the architect should be summary of all documents and their subsequent implementation into the final draft or to the variant designs. There is no possibility to generalize one correct solution or method in here. It is necessary to make the choice on a case by case basis and also within the country or region. The outcome of any research should not be only known by the particular researcher, but the conclusions should be adequately presented to the interested public. One experience teaches: “Cultural or industrial heritage is best protected if it is protected by people themselves.” The second experience says: “If people know only a little about something they do not care about it.” The protection of the industrial heritage is still a hot topic in Slovakia because among people it is not enough established and it is relatively unknown to the general public. Current solution of the issues of the industrial-era monuments in Slovakia is just in the beginning of a long journey, although professionals have already been dealing with this problem for more than 15 years. Nevertheless, even in our conditions we can see the first quality designs in the field of historic restoration of industrial heritage thanks to the interdisciplinary collaboration and also to the consistent application of methods, such as the Research by Design, SWOT analysis or not less important inventory of architectural elements and details. In practical terms it would be appropriated that these methods became mandatory, because in terms of data collection and procedures it’s ensuring objective science works.

Soundscape of urban spaces in the conceptual phases of architectural design
By Matej Kamenický

Soundscape has an important role in the overall architectural ambiance in design of public spaces. Acoustics of the designed space, whether it is interior architecture or urban exterior of public space plays an important role in influencing the soundscape. Architects today do not usually take the aural properties of their public space designs into account during the conceptual phase. This article suggests ways how to incorporate notion of soundscape and acoustic design into architectural design paradigms. However, the concept of soundscape itself is too broad to address the acoustical situations and qualities in detail. In addition, it is a term that addresses only aesthetical qualities of the given urban space. Use of the sonic effect theory is briefly described and compared to the soundscape concept. Suggested directions of research on this topic in our professional conditions include:

  • Revealing the links between sounds, sound situations and attractiveness of urban areas. Is the difference between expected and actual situation of the sound acoustic reality of the space a reason for its rejection?
  • The introducing teaching of aural architecture and acoustic design into schools according to the model of Virginia School of Architecture
  • Developing models, simulating methodology and designing sound environments in the project (arualisation programmes as parallels to the visualization / modelling)
  • Establishing an objective methodology for qualitative description of the sound situation in urban areas. Legislative requirements to involve the public, which take into account the concept of soundscape. A good example is the Charter of Linz – Linz Charter

Creating awareness about the impact of architectural elements on the resulting sound levels in the proposed area.

Geometry of the life supporting forms in architectural design
By Radan Volnohradský

Human perception is a complex process which mostly takes place on unconscious level. Organs of sight play the major role in perception of the space around us. New field of study– neuro aesthetics is a link to understand the incoming images and reactions in our brain. In this context the significance of fractal and sacred geometry structures as initiators of healthy biochemical body production should be stressed. Fractals are common in nature, visible for example in snowflakes or in human air sacks. Their principle is evolving by recursive repetition of an algorithm and therefore creation of self-similar references of great variety. We can perceive the loss of fractal structures for example in urban planning of a concrete block of flats (lack of size variety). As we continue further to architectural scale it is necessary to mention the matrix for almost every natural fractal. No wonder that this can be found as phi or Golden mean ratio (1:1,618…). This number represents the essence of harmonic structures including sacred geometry as a system of life creation. Fibonacci sequence frequently presented in nature (rose bloom, cephalopod Nautilus) deals with approximation to Golden mean and is often visible in the form of the Fibonacci curve. The Pythagorean geometry (as an interpretation of sacred geometry in Euclidean space) appears in its basis in simple forms with strong metaphysical meaning. Starting with point and circle we can continue with special shape of Vesica Piscis through pentad and its star fractality on a way to infinite possibilities. Famous symbol in art and architecture the Flower of life gives the geometrical opportunity to transform itself to five Platonic solids (matter creation). If all the above mentioned is purposely worked into architectural design with sensitive holistic approach then a space full of life force is created. The positive impact to human body could be measured and scientifically proven.

Continuity and rupture in digital architecture
By Júlia Kolláthová

Today our world seems to be unstable and full of changes. The system, in which we have believed in, provides us no longer with the feeling of security. Some talk about the end of the world, others about conversion. How does architecture response to these changes? Does it response at all? Are the instability and uncertainty dominating also in the world of architecture? Can architecture get anything from this situation? In the early 1990’s, there were several fundamental changes in our society. The Cold War finished and the separation of the world into East and West ended. The globalization has been further strengthened by the world wide web availability to the majority of people. In the world of art and architecture prevailed interactivity, there were created open source communities based on the free information exchange. The meaning of creation and originality has changed. The development of computer technologies has brought unprecedented opportunities into the world of architectural design. After the initial excitement from the new opportunities, at present we are experiencing return to the traditional way. The computer is like a tool, a mediator between man and nature. The interest of experts is increasingly exploring the wild natural intelligence. The dominance of Euclidean geometry is weakened by the extension of non-Euclidean geometries. It changed our understanding of space. These changes led us to a significant discrepancy between architectural visions and the reality of construction, which finally resulted in the crisis of tectonics and scale. Some consider it as application for an alternative tectonics; others are trying to return to the basis of architecture in geometry. Some are experimenting with new materials and technologies. Perhaps the world of architecture is experiencing a crisis too, but as the Swiss writer, playwright and architect Max Frisch said: “A crisis is a productive state. You simply have to get rid of its aftertaste of catastrophe.”

Evaluation of sustainable architecture and its use in architecture teaching
By Hana Kasalová

There are many methods used for evaluation of buildings and methods that help us to achieve that the structures are built sustainably. They differ not only in methodology, but also in the target group, to whom the evaluation is determined. Each sustainable building represents extra-standard for now and it should be the basis from which each architect should proceed. An architect can influence the future of the building and predict the degree of its ‘sustainability’ in the process of design of its concept. For this reason it is really important to focus on application of sustainability assessment in architecture education and to teach students to investigate the basic principles of the project sustainability in the development of an architectural concept. At the Faculty of Architecture in CTU, in the Design Studio of Assoc.prof. Ing.arch. Schleger, an evaluation method called ‘eco-parameters’ was developed. Thanks to the so-called ‘eco-parameters’ the level of sustainability of a building can be influenced in early stage of the design process. The process of sustainable building design is not only based on the technical parameters and physical properties of individual components of the building, but especially on the experience and the talent of the architect and the team. It is not possible to reach the quality and comprehensive architectural design with just the use of all specified parameters on the list. It should be noted that a sustainable quality of the building is given rather more with the clear architectural concept based on thorough knowledge and philosophy of the architect. Participation in international competition SolarDecathlon can be considered as an example where students have the opportunity to learn how to design a sustainable building. It is a prestigious student competition where twenty university teams selected from around the world are confronted in the design and construction of an attractive, energy-efficient house powered only by the solar energy. Participation of students of the Faculty of Architecture CTU in this international competition in 2013 is a great success.

Strategies for implementation of greenery into buildings within settlements Development: Importance and some examples from foreign cities
By Zuzana Krivošová

Significance of strategy is in every case important, because it provides tools and methods necessary to achieve objectives. In case of creating green cities, one of strategies used is an implementation of green roofs and walls into planning documents, strategies and regulation principles. This article presents three different strategies for implementation of greenery as part of building construction, into strategic and planning documents of cities. All example cities are from German speaking countries, where such way of regulation was made for the first time. Three different reasons for implementing greenery to building constructions and three different strategies will be presented. Tools for the strategies are different, but from all of them three main ones can be determined:

  • Regulatory – in strategic and planning documents
  • Financial – allowances, reduction of fees and taxes, etc.
  • Supportive – the competition, free consultations, information seminars, training and so on.

A place for a big family
By Kateřina Katovská

The article is dedicated to family housing and, above all, to housing options for large families in a city centre. It describes an example of protected housing and highlights the problems related to living in the city centre, which appears to be growing large, along with its impact on the development of such cities and society. Like most European countries, the Czech Republic faces a low birth rate. The current fertility level ascertained by the Czech Statistical Office does not provide simple reproduction rate of the Czech Republic’s population. In this context, the government strives to support families with children requiring specific care, including e.g. foster care or support families with three or more children and provide them with education and general social development. Statistics indicates that almost four and a half percent of families in the Czech Republic have four or more children, suggesting that this concerns families of six or more. This is not a small number, considering the fact that the today’s city flats are usually designed for a family of four, at most. Though spacious, these apartments’ typological rules, allowing common housing for six people otherwise, are being overlooked. This might be reason why large families live mostly in rural areas. Nevertheless, reasons are plain enough.  Almost each such family responds that living in the country is easier. They have land and house of their own, and a garden, which is undoubtedly necessary for a large family. On the other hand, the city offers numerous activities for teenagers and better job opportunities, as well. The question is, whether the current situation allows for a good-quality family urban housing. Does the city offer what a family needs? What do they bring to the city, on the contrary? The question is whether the current situation allows for quality family housing in the city. In this article, I mention hofjes pros only marginally. These do not solely present a clever use of patio, but also a radical idea of protected family living in the city and the family living itself. In many ways, this example can change the current opinion of design of new housing units, and, although based on the use of courtyards, it consists in more than just building-up the free space, after all.

Influence of globalization on the transformation of Prague
By Anna Háblová

Globalization is still an unfinished, spontaneous and uncontrolled process of increasingly intensive integration of countries of the world in a single economic system, which occurs since the seventies of the twentieth century. (Mezricky, 2006a; Sykora, 2000). Globalization affects all disciplines, including architecture and urban planning. One of the aims of the research is to find out how the process of globalization affects the appearance of Prague. “Globalization leads to a redistribution of power from national governments to multinational companies, from public to private sector. The still growing voices point out that at present, the real power is concentrated in the hands of multinational companies.” (Sýkora, 2000:11) The key to name the sorts of influence of globalization is the power of private sector and the multinational capital. The areas of the most visible influence of globalization on Prague are:

  • skyscrapers and tall buildings – the Pankrac plain
  • administrative complexes – BB Centre (1993), River City Prague (1996)
  • shopping malls – historic city, inner city, edge of the city, outside the city
  • airport and transport infrastructure
  • functional transformation of the historic centre
  • residential zones – lucrative areas in the city
  • suburbia – almost all of Central Bohemia
  • brown fields – Holešovice

The common characteristic feature of influence of globalization is the relationship to the city. Globalisation closes the city parts into their own introverted world, they are showing their backs to the rest of the city. This leads to formation of empty spaces, deaf holes and inner peripheries in the city. Another characteristic feature is predetermination of these parts for a certain group of people. Skyscrapers and administrative complexes are for people working there, shopping malls for people shopping there, residential zones and suburbia for people living there.

The urbanity in the cities is dead: Long live the urbanity in the shopping centres!
By Lucia Štefancová

City functions as a living organism with its arteries, skeleton, supplemental tissue in form of residential areas and people who represent the essential nutrients inside its vein flow. Over the last few years other organisms have started to appear in a city – shopping centers, which absorb large groups of the city visitors mainly by their content, organization and overall visual appearance, which causes the life in the city centres to be slowly dispersing. It is important to examine the reasons why people have become so fond of them and how this knowledge can be used to return life back into the city centres. New shopping centers have become great rivals to the city centers. Shops, services and civil amenities migrate from the centre of town to rented spaces in shopping centers. In particular, historical city cores are becoming “folk museums for tourists” and provide only a limited range of functions – mostly restaurants and cafes. City centre’s weakness, in comparison with the shopping centers, is mainly in a relatively low quality of its urban spaces and an absence of functions and activities. On the other hand, only the city can offer an unique atmosphere and an identity formed by its history. Furthermore, city centre can provide its visitors with calm relaxing zones with vegetation, which are not present in shopping malls. Apart from that, shopping centers are a phenomenon, which can appropriately fill in the missing functions of the city. If all the citizens would spend their time only in one place, the city would be over crowded. Urban spaces should be flexible to a certain extent and be able to react to some changes (seasonal activities, markets, etc.). Changing the function, decoration or activities should motivate people to spend time at squares and streets. Emphasizing an ambience of such spaces by forming their identity, which has disappeared over time, would help create a greater variety of different environments to spend free time.

Increase in density as a strategy for the development of satellite villages and rural settlements
By Milan Šuška

An increasing density of rural settlements is a known phenomenon in history. This article presents domestic and foreign examples of a density increase, theories, methods and reasons in terms of sustainability. It usually used to happen because of heritage division or because various regulations on the protection of natural resources. An example is a regulation from 1767, which forbade building up in specific areas of a village within the whole Habsburg monarchy. Interests for increasing density might be various, but what is important is that those interests lead to social welfare. The article also shows legislative barriers and conflicts within contemporary social trends. Zoning plans provide lots of sites for development, which result in the waste of soil, a very limited and irreversible natural resource. Due to the global economic relations, agricultural land is used as the cheapest building site for “commercial waste of the consumer society.” Building Act does not distinguish between urban and rural environment. Current legislation is applied generally in every situation, regardless of scale or traditional development systems. Second part of the article focuses at students’ projects within the Urban Design II course, where students tried to raise density in a particular area and upgrade it, too. Increasing density in our social environment might seem like an urban utopia which is not based on a social demand. But it is one of approaches to sustainable development of suburbs and rural settlements without using more land, particularly in areas with limited development (national parks, PLA, etc.).

Natural and man-made environments in context of river banks
By Tomáš Hanáček

Degraded river waterfront areas become the subject of revitalization in many European cities. Many cities dispose of the attribute of a city on water or the water-city. How can we evaluate the potential of the area, which combines the natural with the man-made environment? Intelligent urban development is based on revelation of territories. The main goal of this process is to define and implement the most efficient conceptual instruments to take into account the living environment. The river environment as the part of an urban area consists of four basic parts:

  • man-made environment
  • natural environment
  • social environment
  • cultural environment

The river disposes of specific social and natural history in the sense of time and space. The hybrid form of environment is affected by the dynamics of social development and geographical morphology. Termination of the barriers between society and the natural environment creates opportunities for the development of specific cultural environment. Each one of this quaternion represents specific requirements of society. Multidisciplinary review of the theme and discussion with the public provide opportunity to the comprehensive understanding of the issue. The philosophy of dualism can help us to examine the interaction and relationships between man-made and natural environment. The Greek philosopher Armenides developed the philosophical approach in the context of European philosophy and culture, analogous to Greek philosopher Plato and the French theorist Descartes. The philosophy of dualism is closely linked with the dialectic of space and its search for harmony between development and the maintenance of values of the past. Research on the optimal evaluation of the character and potential of the river-banks areas is the main goal of this work. Activation of both river banks and mutual coordination create conditions for the formation of “the city on water”. Cultural environment with opportunities for further development in time and space should be the result of the formation of river banks and urban public spaces. The movement in space/time influences the site considerably. Architects declare that this is the protest against universal trends that are anonymous and against coca-cola architecture. In the case studies of my PhD thesis we use similar methods SKETCH and GO, which combine the multi-sense perception of the environment through short movies and sketches as instruments of urban vision development. Analytical method SKETCH and GO supports the method Research by Design. This method searches opportunities how to optimize solutions for design in urban space through multi-sense perception of the environment. An important aspect of the method is its multidisciplinary applicability and possibility of comparison of each researched element. We focus on two Slovak towns (Bratislava and Trenčín) in our case studies. Two major rivers flow through these towns (Bratislava – Danube and Trenčín – Váh). In both cases we can develop the philosophy of different riverbank character (natural and man-made). Different scales of the urban space provide verification of the hypothesis in practice. The urban vision of the square on water provides a unique proposal of a riverbank as a public space. It is clearly defined by the river and two bridges over the river. The square on water brings a new element into the urban regional character. The phenomenon of the pedestrian bridge described in this case collects and reveals the symbolic value of the site. Innovative transformation of the riverbanks opens the ways and public interest for creation of high-quality public spaces with a unique cultural identity of the 21st century. We need strategies that minimize negative cultural interferences and maximize both historical and natural benefits of the riverbank public space.

The potential and limits of abandoned industrial sites
By Zuzana Haburajová Kepičová

Abandoned industrial sites represent a specific and severe interdisciplinary issue. Negative impacts primarily affect the immediate surrounding area. They also have considerable impact on the overall image of the city with regional impact. Although these locations represent a great potential for the city particularly in terms of contact with the existing urban structures, frequently in tangency with the central or residential areas, but also in terms of existing transport service, infrastructure, buildings, organization schemes etc. Significant potential is represented by the area as a space for new urban development, it provides opportunity for urban intensification, the proximity to the central area, new utilization opportunities of existing buildings, transport services and infrastructure. The main objectives are preservation of the industrial layer as a constituent of cultural heritage, effective utilization, the complementation of urban functions, continuity of public places, implementation of different requirements and interdisciplinary compromises, long-term strategies of development and assignment of sustainability, withdrawal of tension among diverse urban structures in immediate contact, contamination disposal, elimination of negative impacts and creation of positive image of the location and subsequently of the image of the city and region. Crucial problem in the process of transformation and assignment of sustainability is the selection of suitable utilization. It is important to take into consideration particular conditions remarkable for each locality. Selection of new function depends on mutual relation of the site and the central area. It also depends on the extent of contamination and impact on users’ welfare and the environment.

The influence of founders of thread factory in Bratislava on its architecture
By Veronika Kvardová

As shown by the comparison of the examples in the paper, it can be said that the architecture of buildings made use of various principles. First of all, the architectural form and decoration of the building was influenced by its function. Next influential elements were the owners and the architects. An influence of foreign investors and their previous building experience is still visible at current structures, too. However, the local building tradition was also one of the formative impulses which influenced the look of buildings within an establishment. Last but not least is the form and decoration influenced by the time of its origin and advance in the building industry in the field of new construction materials. The brick, as an easily accessible building material, created the basis of all buildings and was markedly expressed on the façade in spite of the fact that the bearing system was created by cast iron or concrete. As a result of the combination of all categories of influences and impulses, which created industrial architecture, a special look of factories forming their cognitive element in the landscape, was created thanks to the place of its creation. In spite of owners, builders, functions or the environment a new building, inspired by decorative elements from the whole spectrum containing not only industrial building, was accomplished. By blending these parts, an ideal space for machines was created, gave work to people and now marks past prosperity of the region. Decorative attributes of these buildings emphasize their importance in our history and create an image of cities.

Textile factory TIBA, Beroun – “alte Weberei” – old weaving mill
By Petr Šimr

This article is a summary of information about the textile factory in the city of Beroun and its history. It also deals with its architectural analysis based on the found extensive project documentation and physical inspection of the examined object. The analysed structure is related to important historical milestones. The photographic documentation of the current layout and the examined state of the buildings has been the other researched aspects. Numerous photos backed by detailed analysis of the examined aspects document the condition of the building. Intensively researched were irregularities in available text sources on the initial building mills. They were proved thanks to comparison of the texts to historically valuable images and a large complex of drawing documents. The drawings provided for historical, technical and scientific purposes a very good idea of size, shape, disposition and location of individual buildings in the area, the dates of their construction, further reconstructions, and functional conversions. This is a great benefit not only for scientific purposes. This case study is an unpublished part of extensive scientific work which is part of the thesis on “Industrial Heritage in Beroun.” Research of the Beroun Tiba textile factory started in January 2011 and today some of the topics – such as textile factory history, architecture, technology and technical equipment of buildings, industrial heritage, and the use of degraded sights or industrial archaeology are still relevant. Other topics such as Fire Sprinkler progress, statics of the buildings, underground conduit network, vertical lines of the textile factory, etc. are still under research.

Czech sacral architecture in the period about 1918
By Jan Obrtlík

The article deals with Czech sacral architecture, in particular, historical moment. Because of the slow movement in the architectural area in comparison to politics, a certain zone of immediate historical period is chosen, which corresponds to the speed of architectural evolution. The midpoint of this imaginary zone on the historical axis is the year 1918, the year of political establishment of independent Czechoslovakia. In the present work the church architecture and the architecture of related buildings is studied mostly from the viewpoint of reactions on the progressing society events. After the political establishment of the Czechoslovakia, there are two basic contradictory relations with an international architectural context. The fi rst of them is the acceptance and co-creation of the formal language of the European avantgarde, the second than the conservative traditionalism formed by the local conditions and requirements. The avantgarde created the same formal language across the borders of all progressive European countries marked by simple white-plastered volumes without any decoration. The national traditionalism in the opposite tried to form a local formal style suitable for expressing the dignity and values of the new state and at the same time integrating inspirations from local folklore. It is an irony of modern history, that the first chance for the Czechoslovak culture to build an original national style was after the World War I when most of the Europe tried to start a brand new epoch and forgot the disappointments of the past. Anyway these were the two decades of liberty between the World Wars during which the young Czechoslovak democratical culture could stand in the first line of European cultural development.

How to preserve post-war architecture?
By Klára Mergerová

The thick line which in 1989 definitively divided our democratic present from the forty years of socialist period caused that the early post-revolutionary period was full of idealism and hopes for better future. However, the inconsistent settlement with the past resulted in a general refusal of any allusion of the former regime and impeded a detached look for a long time. Architecture, as an inseparable part of the cultural heritage suffers from the same prejudice and stereotypes by which we got used to judge all remains of the forty socialist years. The post-war buildings have been regarded through the prism of the political regime of that time. Their popularity is still growing very slowly not only among the general public, but also among experts. In Prague there are only ten buildings from the period after 1950 protected as a cultural heritage. Such a small amount cannot fully represent the evolution of Czech architecture of the 2nd half of the 20th century. Which factors impede a complex evaluation of Czech post-war architecture and its preservation? What are the particularities of this architecture and of its potential preservation? Today’s approach to post-war architecture is determined by several different aspects such as usage of specific building materials accessible on the limited socialist market, which are difficult to maintain or reconstruct. The post-war constructions also face different energetic and hygienio demands, resulting from different laws and mainly from the political misinterpretation.