Summary of approved PhD theses

Propagation of functionalism in architecture – Czechoslovak interwar architecture of Uzhgorod
Mgr. Rastislav Popelka, PhD.

The thesis discusses the topic of Czechoslovak interwar architecture in Uzhgorod with the focus on the functionalist movement. It deals with substantial changes in the administrative status of Uzhgorod after 1919, as expressed in its building development, both in terms of quantity and stylistic and typological diversity. On the one hand, these developments reacted to the needs of the new state as well as to the heritage lingering from the past due to the peripheral location of the city and region on the North-East edge of Hungary; on the other hand, this diversity is dealt with in the larger perspective of general modernization trends. Compared to the Western part of Czechoslovakia these trends expanded later but at an accelerated pace, materializing the functionalist movement with its strong ideological dimension and its arsenal of new forms. It appears, in the light of the local political and socio-economic situation, that possibilities for putting functionalist ideas into practice were rather limited. Nevertheless, the analysis of the local periodical press has shown that the public was aware of the modernist architectural discourse during the whole 20-year period and in the thirties it found its expression in several buildings Uzhgorod and ambitious designs. The thesis illustrates these achievements, also thanks to the documents deposited in the Beregovo archive, and through dealings with the local architectural scene we overcame the traditional focus on architects mainly of Czech origin.

Decoration and architectural form of the industrial architecture in Bratislava
Ing. arch. Veronika Kvardová, PhD.

Historical industrial architecture represents an important cultural heritage in the image of the city. There are no factory areas in Bratislava listed in the Central List of the Slovak Monument Fund (CLSMF) as a complex. Not only the complex, but its particular buildings as well have important and specific monument values that emphasize the importance of preserving such industrial complexes as an important evidence of the development of the society. The valuable historical legacy is represented mainly by the factory buildings from the period of the peak of the second wave of the industrialization until the end of World War I. This paper is focused on the former factory Matador, Hungarian enamel factory, Hungarian thread factory and Danubius textile factory as unique and coherently preserved representatives of the industrial layer in the city of Bratislava that on the ground of evaluation of their monument values could become the subjects of the protection. As far as the monument values are concerned, the research is focused on the aesthetic value of the industrial architecture within which it is concentrated on the decoration and the architectural forms. The historical technological equipment hasn’t been preserved in the examined complexes, so the technology flow can be followed just through the architecture which remained here. For this reason, the subject of this paper is the focus on the aesthetic side of the architecture that functions as the most visible historical legacy from the mentioned period in the city organism. The historical industrial architecture is investigated mainly through examination of the used architectural forms and decoration on the facades as well as on the construction elements within the particular buildings. At the same time the research is orientated on acquiring new facts about the complexes, their architects and founders as well as gaining the knowledge about the impulses influencing the industrial architecture in Bratislava. The objective of this work is to evaluate the examined factories from the point of view of the importance of their architectural forms and decoration while dealing with their preservation and listing them to the CLSMF. One of the most important activities is to identify and observe the factors influencing the architectural style of the industrial buildings. Through the analysis of the particular buildings and complexes we have managed to name and determine characteristic elements of the industrial architecture of the specific objects. The objective of our work is also to find and process new findings about the origin and design of the examined complexes as well as to identify correctly the industrial buildings and their original functions. At the very end of the work one may find well-arranged catalogue with the information about the objects and their architectural and decorative forms.

Designing safe environment by architectural means: Opportunities of prevention and reduction of crime
Ing. arch. Lucia Benkovičová, PhD.

The environment in architecture is divided into physical, social and cultural. Safe environment can in architecture be defined from the point of view of fire safety, hygiene and health unobjectionability (so-called healthy houses). These kinds of safe environment fall into physical environment. The topic relates to the area of social environment — to what extent the environment (urban, of complex of buildings, structure or building details) contributes to local crime, but also how buildings themselves influence the environment. The topic links to the project CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design). The main role of architects is to create artificial environment for provision of safe place to live. The role of an architect is to incorporate the security info effective spatial and operational design, provide sightlines, access control, design proper positioning of delicate and reserved spaces, by particular design features thoroughly coordinate safety technology and personnel. For an architect it also means to get clear the requirements, know the means and understand the implications of each design. Security demands and desired ways of use of the structure and its environment need to be specified and taken into consideration as early as possible, optimally since the assignment. The reason is that for a town planner, architect, civil engineer, landscape architect, developer, builder, community groups and municipal corporations the most effective, least expensive way is to provide security in first conceptual and design stages. On the basis of current available knowledge, the project work primarily provides an overview of responses to key questions of security concept (in the sense of CPTED), to which a responsible project architect should find answers and respond to them in his / her design.

  • PhD thesis approved in the study programme Architecture at the Faculty of Architecture STU in Bratislava

Design object as artistic artefact: Design and art – free cool in
Mgr. art. Michal Šuda, ArtD.

Thesis explores the mutual area of the sculpture and design. It is attempt at define this area from sculptural point of view. It focuses on the object as a denominator which is present in sculpture and also in design. Research is focusing on the object, the most important sculpture discovery of the 20th century. In the text is also analyse also the possibilities of sculptural object and his principle for the creation of a product. This approach to the object is closely related to the Conceptual movement and also to the Ready-made. Thesis struggle to define contemporary tendencies in design and how is applied the principles of sculpture. In contemporary design is dominating a post-modern tendency, characterized by historical citation or appropriation. Therefore, it is important the orientation in the object historical development in regarding to design and sculpture. Work showcases the current trends of contemporary design and sculpture and defines their correlating creative aspects. It also deals with the verification of possible uses of the material, its essence, shift and experiment. Moreover, it verifies the social function in the object of product design, importance of the presence of an archetype or added value. The benefit of the work is in potentiality of applying results into teaching practice at Slovak Technical University as a study material. Analysis of research findings would confirm the assumption about the currency of the mutual creative space of design and sculpture.

Typology of solar town planning: Urban structures generating
Ing. arch. Ján Legény, PhD.

Man can be separated from nature, but the nature is inseparable part of man. The climate change, largely caused by the activity of man, not only results in the temperature increase also in more frequent natural disasters. We become the crucial factor in the cycle of life, and thus we determine directly or indirectly how the cycle of life will continue. Nowadays, mankind is struggling with climate change and depletion of energy sources. Recycling, using of renewable resources, fossil fuels saving, increasing of equipment efficiency, nature preservation or lifestyle change present a possible direction how to cope with the climate change, keep sustainable economic development, improve the quality of our life as well as the life of future generations. Another way how to decrease the human impact on nature is due to reduction of energy consumption in buildings and urban structures. The energy demands at the object scale are a well-known issue of today. The next step should be the shift towards the scale of urban structures – to design of energy effective urban structures by the implementation/integration of renewable energy sources, mostly solar energy. It is accompanied by the tendency of legislation alignment across European Union aiming to decrease the energy consumption and to a significant extent of renewable energy sources application into practice. The energy effective urban structures than mainly present the effective use of energetic sources; in particular, the energy of the Sun, whether it is active (PV appliances) or passive — through architecture. Most important is the proper orientation to cardinal points, constructing details, used materials and shading devices. By these measures significant reduction of the energy consumption can be achieved. The main issue of the research was to create a generative software for energy effective urban structures. The IT geocentric model of the motion of the Sun (programmed in RhinoScript Grasshopper) is fundamental to determine a design tool for better understanding and proper implementation of solar access principles in urban design. This tool is based on the theory of radiant flux. The user inserts specific data such as plot dimensions, climatic data of set region, the build-up area of the plot and defines the time interval of insulation. The IT program generates the maximum shape that should be adapted according to the aesthetic and static parameters. There is an option to select/define the shaded area which has cardinal impact on the generated shape. Software can generate urban structures, which must be subsequently evaluated by energy demands. The research has shown that it is possible to design urban structures that are energy self-sufficient, even energy-positive. The energy profitable urban blocks than subsidize the energy deficient blocks (with higher energy consumption) over the power grid enabling diverse energy standards. This tool may also open new aesthetic possibilities in architecture and urban design.

Keywords: design, urban design, dissertation thesis, architectural heritage conservation, architecture