Summary of approved PhD theses

Art and design: Design product as a part of a small limited edition
Mgr. art. Eva Veselá, ArtD.

Dissertation thesis “Art and Design, design product as a part of a small limited edition”, is aimed to create a particular piece of artwork — design product that meets the attributes of design product (as a usable, functional product) and at the same time with the nature of a limited edition is a piece of art which exist only as a few unique specimens. The design product gains its uniqueness thanks to the user himself who enters the design process as a source of exceptional ideas and essential emotions. Customer shares his unique ideas with the designer who creates a set of products, based on customer specific ideas and needs.

  • PhD thesis approved in the study programme Design at the Faculty of Architecture STU in Bratislava

Interactive show-window in contemporary retail parterre
Ing. arch. Mária Vozárová, PhD.

Dissertation “Interactive show-window in contemporary retail parterre” is aimed on investigation of new approach in visual representanion of a show-window as a signifi-cant phenomenon of public urban space. The main focus is posed on specification, investigation and evaluation various forms of interactive show-windows and show areas that were made following the implementation of inteligent media resources and new technologies, i.e.resources aimed on mutual interacion between the show-window and the user of the urban space. A part of the research is to identify preferences of various groups of users in relation with types of forms of show-windows in urban parterre through questionnaire, which provides results as a relevant base for further research such as designing of model simulations of interactive show-windows situated in Bratislava. The thesis is aimed on specification of innovatiove possibilites in designing of show-windows in retail parterre with use of new technologies enabling mutual interaction of the show-window and a person, which is one of assumptions of risng quality not only in parterre of buildings and is interior space, but also public urban space. Its aim is to con-tribute to understanting the issue of aplication of new technologies and multimedia in creation of interactive show-windows, their use in relation to user of the space, as well as refer to the potential further development and outline possible solutions in the area in terms of slovak towns.

School work in commercial environment
Mgr. art. Jozef Turlík, ArtD.

The dissertation deals with the issue of school work in commercial environment. The author clarifies principal terms, defines the legislative frame of a school work and brings examples from history. He mentions experiences of cooperation between academies of art and commercial subjects in Czech republic and Slovakia and also in abroad. In the practical part of the dissertation, based upon own design product and experience, the author explains what influence a commercial subject has on a school work. The design product in the dissertation is a company mascot for Škoda Auto. The author brings closer the development of the mascot from various perspectives and presents the final design. Chapters about author experience from a study stay at Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design in Prague (Czech republic) are to be found in the dissertation too. It also summarizes briefly successful cooperation projects of Institute of Industrial Design and various commercial subjects.

Activity-friendly interior
Mgr. art. Lucia Masárová, ArtD.

Physical activity is known to be one of the major means of non-communicable diseases prevention and its health benefits have been proven by many studies. It is therefore alarming that the amount of physical activity of today’s population is constantly decreasing. The sources of this decrease are mainly: sedentary nature of work, preference of passive leisure-time activities and associated transfer from exterior to interior. Due to the fact that people of the 21st century spend most of their lives in the interior, a need for interiors optimized for physical activity arises. Many researches have agreed upon the dynamizing potential of circulation areas. The goal of our research is further development of these theories and specification of the environmental attributes which have the greatest impact on the amount of recreational and hybrid physical activity within building, most of all a/ layout, b/ visual aspects of interior, and c/ design of an interior element, which would enable hybrid or recreational physical activity.

Modeling of organic shapes in architecture: Natural inspirations in digital architecture
Ing. arch. Kinga Václavová, PhD.

The last twenty years there can be seen an expansion of nature-inspired architecture, based on the work with digital technologies. This movement reflects the characteristic trend of architecture to seek inspiration in nature, and examines the characteristic attributes of natural artefacts that can be applied in architectural design too. Some mathematical and geometric patterns, the interactive relationship with environment, the idea of integrity, coherence, colleration and integration are principles of natural organisms, which can be applied also in architecture to describe similar qualities of design. The subjects of this work are natural inspirations and potentials of their processing by digital technologies. Nature has always been a strong source of inspiration for architecture. The entrance of digital technologies into architectural production opened new opportunities to deepen this approach. Digital architecture, as a relatively new branch of architecture, reflects the ancient architecture trend to seek inspiration in living nature. Natural structural forms are well adapted to their environment, centuries and millennia tested on different types of load — snow, wind, etc. Digital technologies offer new possibilities in production of organic shapes in architecture, for example to reproduce the growth, developmental proces- ses of nature that can be applied to generate forms, shapes of buildings with complex geometry. The importance of nature as one of the oldest and most fundamental underlying inspiration sources continues to increase gradually. This work focuses on the relationship of nature with architecture and examines it in terms of ways to apply these shapes in architecture, as their model, with emphasis on the possibility of biomorph modelling and parametric modeling.

  • PhD thesis approved in the study programme Architecture at the Faculty of Architecture STU in Bratislava

Regulation and application of vegetation areas in the urban environment
Ing. arch. Ivan Nemeth, PhD.

The urban vegetation has received great attention in the global climate change context in recent years. As the natural element of the city structure, vegetation can gradually improve environmental quality at minimum cost compared to all the technical options. Vegetation effects on improving the climate, produces oxygen, which has mainly phytoncide and regenerative impact, absorbs harmful contaminants from the air, reduces noise, dust and gaseous air pollution. By ionizing the air it positively affects his physical state, provides space and suitable conditions for recreation and recovery of people, compositionally and aesthetically completes the city, acts on the physiological and mental state of man. These effects will become evident only in case when the vegetation is systematically planned, cherished and regularly treated. Besides this solid treatment, achievement of these positive effects requires also modification of the methodology of vegetation regulation tools in spatial planning. In Slovakia we use a quantitative approach in the planning of city vegetation, which does not reflect the diversity of all the green surfaces in an urban environment. Nowadays this approach appears to be insufficient. The objective of this work is the proposal of the most optimal method for regulating the urban vegetation in zoning plans. This method shall take into consideration the qualitative aspects of green surfaces. The core of this work is to analyze the regulatory tools for city vegetation applied in Slovakia and the tools applied abroad. The objective of the practical research is the application of the analyzed regulatory tool on an existing ground and their subsequent mutual comparison. The final chapter defines the requirements that shall be implemented in the new methodology for regulation of green areas in spatial planning. Successful implementation of the reasearch findings can contribute to the ecological stability of the city.

Historical and typological development of roof structures of the Renaissance in Slovakia
Ing. arch. Karol Ďurian, PhD.

The present paper examines the issue of historic roof structures within the territory of Slovakia in the Renaissance period. Mainly the topic is focused on the truss structure of lengthwise buildings from the second half of the 16th and the entire 17th century and their mutual comparison from structural and typological point of view. These are found mostly over the sacral buildings in Slovakia, and so the thesis focuses on these buildings and also compares them with analogous Renaissance structures in Europe (especially the central Europe). Part of the thesis is also monitoring the development of supporting characters, such as the development of carpentry joints of the individual components of roof construction together with carpenter mounting markings and brands and application of decorative elements. Aim of this work is to specify the basic types of trusses of Renaissance longitudinal buildings situated in the territory of Slovakia, to create a catalog of selected types of Renaissance truss in Slovakia, the determination of characteristic Renaissance carpentry joints, decorative elements, assembly carpentry brands and comparison of regional differences in our country and in selected countries of Central and Western Europe. The thesis consists of an introduction, two main substantive parts, a catalog of selected typologies of structures and conclusion. The first part contains an introduction, definition of objectives the work aims to bring and used methods of investigation. The second part is a detailed analysis of the present state of knowledge on the topic with defined terminology. The third extensive part focuses on the determination of the theoretical and methodological basis of the topic, specification of typologies of architecture, geoclimatic conditions in the relevant period, analysis of previous medieval truss structures, roofing materials used in the relevant period and the known data about carpenters and their craft. Also this section sets out methods of time and typologic classification of truss structures. The most extensive content is the catalog of types of Renaissance roof trusses in Slovakia, which contains 18 data sheets. The last chapters are detailed analyses of typological types in our country or abroad together with their comparison. The final part contains a brief summary of the thesis results and an outline of anticipated possibilities of practical use for “conservation practice” in identifying these rare structures by professionals and also general public.

Conservation of medieval town walls on the territory of Slovakia
Ing. arch. Alexandra Škrinárová, PhD.

Medieval town walls are a crucial part of the cultural heritage of Slovakia. The town walls, a complex of buildings and adjacent territorial arrangements, have lost its utility and gradually became dorsal to a various extend. In fact, a great number of them is in emergency conditions, respectively in a state which does not correspond with their social value. The dissertation’s focus is on conservation of the town walls and presentation of this typological category. The paper consists of an introduction, 7 topics, a discussion, and a conclusion. The first set of topics describes the current status of knowledge of conservation of town walls in general, and names its specifics. Furthermore, it maps 12 town-wall complexes chosen as the subject of research in the towns of Bratislava, Trnava, Skalica, Trenčín, Kremnica, Prešov, Sabinov, Bardejov, Podolínec, Kežmarok, Levoča, and Košice. The result of the research is a town-walls mapping system. This part of the paper is structured into a text; photographic; and a graphic part. Chapter 6 of the paper is based on generalization of the findings, the dissertation concludes on the level of preservation of the Medieval town walls on our territory. The conclusions include enumeration of partial conservation methods; evolution of approaches towards the conservation from 1950s until now; respectively the absence of a framework for methods of conservation of monuments on individual town walls. The next chapter of the dissertation consists of research based on a proposal for a framework method of conservation a presentation of the town walls of Modra. By means of mapping the town walls and evaluating the experience from an interdisciplinary research group on presentation of the town walls of Modra, the author assess deficiencies of the conservations on our territory and classifies them in Chapter 8. The paper as a whole consists of a systematic base of theoretical knowledge of town walls, and insights into preserved Medieval town walls in Slovakia especially from the point of view of their conservation and presentation. It is possible to use the specified results of the dissertation in the conservation practice.

Castle restoration in Slovakia
Ing. arch. Zuzana Ondrejková, PhD.

Castle compounds belong to a specific group of monuments due to their extensive area, complicated building structure as well as, in most cases, to their difficult accessibility. After being abandoned by the original owners, i. e. the aristocracy, losing their initial function and falling into ruin, their restoration proves to be extremely difficult. The works monitors the development of preferred castle restoration methodologies in the Slovak territory since the origins of institutionalized conservation care to this date. It focuses on the relationship between the framework methodology and its completion through partial restoration methodologies. Moreover, it provides definitions of determiners influencing its selection, and of their modifications leading to today’s state of castle restoration in Slovakia. Based on the research evidence the author proposes a system for documenting these restoration projects in a form of catalogue notes with castle restoration projects. The work understands castle restoration authorship as dual ownership — both methodology creators and restoration project authors are considered to be the authors. Additionally, the architect’s role in the castle compound restoration process is underlined. The work describes his or her current position based on the past experience, as well as his or her possible activity in castle restoration in the future. Architect’s possibilities within castle restoration were simulated on the case studies of castle ruins restorations at Likavský hrad and Zborovský hrad. The discussion part of the work includes an overview of current opposing opinions on the issue of castle restoration and on the architect’s position within its scope, while the conclusion summarizes results and recommendations for further research.

Transformational junctions in the picture of city: The case study of Trenčín
Ing. arch. Adriana Mlynčeková, PhD.

The presented work focuses on issues surrounding transformational junctions in the picture of city, putting emphasis on the personality of the city of Trenčín. The theoretical part deals with the premises from which, in turn, we derive the findings which will be applied in the practical part concerning exclusively the city of Trenčín. This work’s objective is to come up with findings which could be helpful for future zoning documentations or urban studies. Furthermore, this work aims at justifying the decision taken by the city of Trenčín regarding an investment, which is being prepared, in a terminal. In addition, it also strives to be an inspiration whilst dealing with questions of alternative forms of public transport. These forms of public transport focus in particular on using the already existing possibilities which are conditioned by the historically and technically available infrastructure. All of these aspects must be in accordance with legislation in force. These are the key concepts which are the most representative of this dissertation: – transformational, transformation – line – junction The case study of Trenčín summarizes a large number of documents and maps the urban and zoning development of the city. The long-term endeavour in the search for documents, zoning sources, information and materials led to a complex picture of the city in his development. In line with the established goal of this work, there are some additional proposals and initiatives for subsequent zoning documents which directly follow from it: – High potential for economically solvable and effective rail transport in the city of Trenčin with the maximal usage of the existing railway and the regional track n. 143. High potential for creation of new core injunctions in localities which will represent a new possibility for development and stimulus for development of adjacent regions. Potential for creation of, first, new stops of rail transport in the places of an overlap between built-up areas and forest park Brezina; secondly, of new stops directly in the forest park Brezina which will assist the development of recreational functions and enhancement of environment. Stimulus of development of the waterfront in connection with the city centre Consideration of a reserve for the central railway and bus station in connection with the highway. This placement would represent an eccentrically situated urban development of the city, without any connection with the city and its value A reserve of a corridor for railway cargo transit with a goods station without any possibility of urban development. Its realisation will not be justified unless its economic returns are proven.

Developing of creativity in designers education in the 21st century
Mgr. Elena Farkašová, ArtD.

The dissertation thesis deals with the creative process in designing, aspects encouraging creativity during designer education, creativity stimulation and life-long development of designer s personality. The aim of the thesis was to propose a model of designers education that would serve as a starting point for the development of designers creativity. Further aim within the context of the created model was to propose methods for stimulating the divergent thinking in the initial stages of creative designing process and to verify these methods in practice. Research resulted into creating an (auto)didactic six-level model for developing designers personality (dizajnSPIN) reflecting the needs for future designer s competences. It depicts twelve designers competences in the creative process, which are then developed by means of this model. The development of designers personality at a specific level is carried out through intentional influence of dynamics of individual processes and interactions through applying the available accelerators or stimuli in synergic cooperation of subjects taking part in the creative process. The model was verified experimentally in the teaching process in the initial stages, which precede the executive stages of designing, and was aimed at stimulating the divergent thinking and encouraging the creative skills of feeling, noticing, being able to find inspiration, freeing oneself from stereotypes and at supporting the formulation of ones own opinion (encouraging the search, discovering ones own, authentic, original approaches to problem solving, encouraging the production of various ideas, encouraging the skill of developing several ways of thinking simultaneously). In this context some already known methods were used in an innovative way. Following a questionnaire and observation we analysed the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used and activities carried out. These findings were then summarised in recommendations. The conclusion of the thesis highlighted the importance of the hidden dynamics and accelerators which can speed up the progress. Research results can be applied in the initial stages of designing at various levels of education; they can be used as introduction to the creative process or in further designers practice. Proposed model creates a framework for designers own reflection (also non- designers taking part in the designing process), autoregulation, development or performance improvement.

Aspects of sustainability during the restoration in preserved monumental structures
Ing. arch. Petronela Pagáčová, PhD.

This dissertation thesis pays a careful attention to the problem of sustainability and protection of architectural heritage with the emphasis placed on finding potentials and limits of sustainable interventions into historic structures in architectural and urban dimension. It responds to the actual topic of CO2 decreasing in objects with historic value, which also supports its production. The dissertation thesis is also a reaction to European instruction no. 2010/31/EU of European parliament and the Council of the European Union from 19th of May 2010 about energy efficiency of buildings saying that valuable historic buildings do not have to reach the requirement of high energy efficiency in case the states decides in another way. Thanks to the higher pressure of demand, we often met with a requirement of application of similar interventions without care of types of objects in the current praxis. This thesis is looking for possibilities on how to assume an attitude based on a systematic approach. It works with a concept of model studies and scenarios, which were proved mainly in quite complicated and complex tasks as the monument protection is mainly considered to be. Thesis is also aimed on the integration of solar technologies and other renewable sources in historic area with care of its character and development scenarios. Research is focused on renovation of the orphanage in town Modra, where the entire process is exemplified in architectural and urban dimension. Dissertation thesis is coupled with a topic of cultural sustainability, which divides this problem from qualitative and quantitative point of view. It shows that sustainability system is closely connected to the culture, which has an irreplaceable place being its qualitative factor.

Rethinking the architectural field
Mgr. art. Ing.arch. Peter Hudač, PhD.

Thesis deals with the notion of field and its relationship to architecture. The architectural field is a dynamic environment, medium defined by terms of physics, such as forces, vectors, flows and energies. The field is one of the concepts of architectural space in contemporary architecture, which is based on the field theories and the psychology of perception, especially Gestalt-theory. Within the concept of field, where boundaries are blurred, there is a different, alternative mode of ordering and spatial orientation. The field is able to reflect and to respond flexibly to processes associated with social changes. In the first part of the thesis the notion of field is defined and analyzed according to its relevance to architecture. The following part starts with a description of field theories and their application in architecture, and then it proceeds to an introduction of the possibilities, approaches and examples in architecture. A portion of the thesis discusses the evolution of thinking about architectural space and also a description of the process of transformation from the space of industrial society towards the space, which reflects the complexity of contemporary society.

Interwar Architecture of Residential Buildings in Uzhgorodu
Ing. arch. Romana Fialová, PhD.

Uzhgorod is currently the administrative center and the largest city of the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine. Between the World Wars of the last century, the area was annexed to the First Czechoslovak Republic, under the name of Ruthenia. The disintegration of the First Czechoslovak Republic and the territorial division of Europe after the World War II caused that the territory of Ruthenia was disconnected from Czechoslovakia. This act paralyzed not only economic, but also cultural-cognitive contacts between the post-war Czechoslovakia and its former easternmost part. The paralysis caused the area and the period are still not systematically processed in the architectural historiography, neither in the former Czechoslovakia nor in Ukraine. The dissertation presents research of the architectural production of residential buildings in Uzhgorod, which passed a great change in the interwar period – from a small provincial town was built a modern regional center of the 20th century. There was established a representation of all components of the state apparatus and there was formed an extensive economic and administrative infrastructure that ensured strategic political and economic objectives of the young republic on the whole territory of Ruthenia. The result is a valuable construction production, that culturally and socially closely connects the area with the Czechoslovak history. The presented research explains and characterizes the production of residential architecture in the political-economic context of the time and place, and also in the context of the former state. Residential architecture is an indicator of the level and the composition of society, it is an accepted qualitative attribute in public awareness. There is always devoted a serious attention to its construction, therefore its knowledge has socially and culturally acclaimed informative value. The result of research is the urban development of Uzhgorod, also realized through the construction of new residential areas, that was documented with a historic map material. Various residential districts are gradually analyzed in terms of architecture, authorship and material-realization. Information obtained from historical literature and archival research, were validated through field research and documented by own photographs. The results confirmed that the residential architecture, that originated under assessment period in this peripheral part of the First Czechoslovak Republic, is compatible and qualitatively comparable to the architectural production in the rest of the country. Acquired knowledge and the fact, that this production has passed only minimal changes, increase its documentary value at international level and they call for its protection.

Historical and typological development of roof structures of the medieval in Slovakia
Ing. Ľubor Suchý, PhD.

The presented dissertation thesis explores the issue of medieval historical framework constructions of Slovakia in the time period from the turn of 13th and 14th century until the 16th century (transition from late gothic to early renaissance). Buildings with identified medieval constructions in our lands are exclusively sacral objects with traditional longitudinal disposition (nave, chancel), this is why this work deals with frameworks in this particular type of building. Main subject of this work is the current state of preservation these frameworks, their construction and design, with the emphasis on historical and typological development of these carpentry constructions from the simplest to the more complex. Besides the main subject of this thesis, current state of research in this field in chosen lands of Western, Northern and Central Europe is also an important part of this paper. Basic terminology won’t be omitted. Comparative analysis is the main method for the evaluation of typology of medieval framework constructions. Framework dating, among the above mentioned method, is the only exact method — dendrochronology. Part of this work is also the description of work of a traditional carpenter, forms of wood processing for timber frameworks, framework assembly and types of carpentry joints and markings. Main aim of this work is to exactly specify basic types of historical frameworks preserved on sacral buildings with longitudinal disposition in Slovakia, creating the basic catalogue of construction types of preserved medieval frameworks on our lands (graphic sheet with the basic characteristics of the construction), that can be part of an evidence list of monument in the archives of Monuments Board of Slovak Republic in Bratislava. This work consists of the Introduction, five main content parts, Conclusion and References. In the Introduction there is set the choice of main topic, subject, goal of dissertation thesis, and methods of research. Main parts of this work (section 1 to 5) analyze the state of knowledge of medieval frameworks in the chosen countries of Western, Northern and Central Europe, including Slovakia, summarize historical and typological development of historical frameworks and specify the basic typological division of constructions from the beginning of 14th century to the half of the 16th century in Slovakia. Comparison of the medieval frameworks with the presented European countries is not missing. Catalogue of construction types in the form of five separate sheets brings the basic construction types currently preserved in Slovakia. Conclusion of the thesis contains brief summary of the results of this work and its contribution to the heritage preservation in the ability to identify these rare constructions for the both professional and general public.

Keywords: FA STU, dissertation thesis, architecture, architectural heritage conservation, research, design, urban design