City park, current aspects of design

Eva Putrová

SUMMARY

The content of the article focuses on the issue of creation of an urban park as part of the public space of a city. Currently, several professions like architects, urban planners, designers and sociologists take discussion on public areas of the city. They search for solutions to increase the quality of these areas.

In the system of public spaces, parks play an important role, they have a significant potential to compensate many social and environmental problems, which cities have to face currently. Parks are involved in creating the characteristic image of the city, its positive effect on the quality of urban life. One of the reasons why many urban parks are in unsatisfactory condition is the different pace of life and the needs of people who visit the parks. The program for parks, which was composed under the past terms of the past period, requires new solutions.

The article characterizes the park as a public space of the city. Types of parks are defined in terms of their characteristic appearance. The parks should be understood in different way in relation to their importance. This is associated with their administration, maintenance and development. The hierarchy of parks is related to their attendance, areal size, their location and their specific character. Sufficient size, quality, and availability are some of the major indicators of the park’s attractiveness. The assessment of availability of parks will help us to detect their shortage in the area of the city and can lead to the need for amendments.

The search for new styles and strategies for current park design in the urban environment requires solutions addressing sustainability of further development of settlements. The current creation of parks has several aspects: creation of space, social aspects, environmental and economic aspects. The current strategy of park design, in terms of the sustainability, is making parks ecological, the application of domestic species of vegetation, vegetation elements that are by their character close to nature, bio-retention of rainwater, use of local elements and recyclable materials.

In terms of public spaces, parks need to be multifunctional, ecological and cultural, open for their users and also open to the city. A perfect park should cover the scale of recreational interests of the public as much as possible, but should also provide areas where the users decide what the function of the space will be or what they want to use it for.

The history of parks indicates that it is relatively easy to build the parks but their long-term maintenance tends to be a problem. Public parks are under the management of town or urban authorities, which allocate financial resources to cover only the basic maintenance. Innovations and new strategies require further sources. Many of the parks in foreign countries have already created their own sources of income through foundations, activities, partnerships with private sector or with communities, using technology that will help reduce the cost of their operation.

Keywords: park design, hierarchy, public space, size, city park, park creation