We are aware that it is not possible to include all theoretical psychological and neuroscientific starting points in the scope of the work, however, we are of the opinion the mentioned theories and research provide a solid basis for further research in the field of architecture and design. Furthermore, we also perceive the fact that the connection between neuroscience and psychology with design is still in its infancy, especially if we take into account studies originated in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Therefore, drawing on psychology and neuroscience, we tried to establish a basis, which could be used in the future and modified and updated later on as appropriate. In this work, we have summarized several cognitive processes, which in our opinion are closely related to user experience, namely consciousness, memory, perception, decision-making, physiological arousal of the organism, attention and emotionality. In further theoretical research, we would certainly focus on other cognitive processes, such as learning, the ability to plan and anticipate events, motor coordination, and problem solving. We believe that these cognitive processes are also important in the user’s interaction with space. Learning is largely related to our memory, including spatial memory, meaning that we can assume that user experience can also be influenced by how easy or difficult it is to remember a particular space. Alternatively, it can be affected by the way how the user may feel in similar premises (for example, the stores in the LIDL retail chain are arranged almost all the same). Planning and anticipating events is also an important cognitive factor, for example when designing spaces to be used for fast user actions, such as moving in the underground. Motor coordination can be a significant factor for people with various health (physical) disabilities, such as people using a wheelchair.